Fifa has provisionally suspended its president Sepp Blatter, secretary general Jerome Valcke and vice-president Michel Platini for 90 days.
The punishments were handed out by the ethics committee of football’s world governing body, which is investigating the three over corruption allegations.
It also banned ex-Fifa vice-president Chung Mong-joon for six years.
Issa Hayatou, who heads Africa’s football confederation (Caf), will act as Fifa president during Blatter’s ban.
Spain’s Angel Maria Villar is expected to head Uefa – European football’s governing body – while Platini is suspended.
But Platini – and Chung – are still hoping to replace Blatter when he steps down as president in February.
Hayatou, meanwhile, has issued a statement saying he will only serve on an interim basis and will not be standing for election.
Explaining its decision to ban Blatter, Platini and Valcke, the ethics committee said: “The grounds for these decisions are the investigations that are being carried out by the investigatory chamber of the ethics committee.”
The three are banned from any football activity in the interim. They deny any wrongdoing.
Britain’s Fifa vice-president David Gill has called for an emergency meeting of its executive committee following Thursday’s developments.